Saturday, March 9, 2013

"Super Semar" mystery

"Super Semar"or "Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret"(March eleven warrants) was a warrant that signed by Soekarno on 11th march 1966.

This letter contains commands that instruct Soeharto, as Commander of the Operational Command of Security and Order (Commander) to take all necessary actions to address the poor security situation at the time.

Warrant of March this is the version that is released from the Army Headquarters (AD) were also recorded in the history books. Most of the historians Indonesia said that there are different versions that are still searchable text Supersemar Supersemar issued by President Sukarno in Bogor Palace.


One version Supersemar (Center for History and Tradition TNI).

 Why It out?

According to the official version, originally Supersemar discharge occurs when, on March 11, 1966, the President convened the Cabinet swearing-enhanced Dwikora known as the "100 cabinet ministers". At the time the trial began, Brigadier General Sabur as commander of the presidential guard troops' Tjakrabirawa reported that many "wild forces" or "unknown forces" which was later known is Kostrad troops under the command of Major-General Kemal Idris charge of detaining people who are in the Cabinet allegedly involved in the G-30-S include Deputy Prime Minister I Soebandrio.
Based on these reports, together with the Vice President I Soebandrio Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Saleh Chaerul III went to Bogor by helicopter that had been prepared. While the trial was finally closed by the Deputy Prime Minister II Dr.J. Leimena which followed the Bogor.
The situation is reported to Major-General Suharto (who later became President of replacing Sukarno), which at that time as Commander of the Army Lieutenant General Ahmad Yani replace the fallen aftermath G-30-S/PKI it. Major General (Mayjend) Soeharto did not attend the cabinet meeting due to illness. (Some people assessing the absence Soeharto cabinet meeting considered the scenario Suharto to wait for the situation. Because regarded as a gaffe).
Major General Suharto sent three high-ranking officers (AD) to Bogor to meet President Soekarno at the Bogor Palace Brigadier General M. Jusuf, Brigadier General and Brigadier General Amirmachmud Basuki Rahmat. Arriving at the Bogor Palace, at night, there was talk among the three high-ranking Army with the President of the circumstances and the three officers stated that Soeharto Mayjend able to control the situation and restore order when given a letter of assignment or a power of attorney authorizing him to take action. According to Gen. (ret) M Jusuf, talks with President Soekarno until 20:30 pm nightly.
President Sukarno agreed to it and made an order known as the Order of March which is popularly known as Supersemar addressed to Mayjend Soeharto as commander of the Army to take the necessary measures to restore security and order.Supersemar2
Supersemar letter arrived in Jakarta on March 12, 1966 at 01.00 local time brought by the Secretary of the Army Headquarters, Brigadier General Budiono. It is based on the narrative Sudharmono, at which time he received a call from Mayjend Sutjipto, Chairman of the G-5 KOTI, March 11, 1966 at around 10 pm. Sutjipto called for the dissolution of the Communist Party concept was prepared and had done that night. The requ
est was on the orders of Commander Mayjend held by Suharto. Even Sudharmono was arguing with Moerdiono legal basis Supersemar text until it arrives.

Super Semar President

Super Semar 2

 Some controversy about Supersemar

According to one of the three army officers who finally received the letter, when they read the letter again on the way back to Jakarta, one of the officers who then read it commented "Why is khan transfer of power". It is not clear then the original script Supersemar because a few years later the original manuscript of this letter missing and the loss of this letter is not clear by whom and where as perpetrators of history events "birth Supersemar" has passed away. Later, the family M. Jusuf said the manuscript Supersemar exists on private documents M. Jusuf stored in a bank.

According to the testimony of one of the presidential guards at the Bogor Palace, First Lieutenant (First Lieutenant) Sukardjo Wilardjito, when the confession was written in various media after the reforms of 1998 that also marked the end of the New Order government of President Suharto. He stated that the officers who attended the Bogor Palace on the evening of March 11, 1966 at 01.00 local time dawn not three but four officers ie officers followers Brigadier General (Brig) M. Panggabean. Even at the time of Supersemar Brig M. Joseph brought folder Headquarters Army logo pink and Gen. M. Pangabean and Brig Basuki Rahmat pointing a gun towards the President and insisted that the President signed the letter which he said that an Order of March is not clear what it is. Sukardjo First Lieutenant who was in charge of guarding the president, also reply to put the gun in the direction of the generals but President Sukarno ordered Soekardjo to drop his gun and sheathed. According to him, the President then signed the letter, and after signing, the President advised that the situation has been stabilized, the mandate should be immediately returned. The meeting broke up, and when the four officers were returned to Jakarta. Soekardjo President Sukarno told that he must get out of the palace. "I have to get out of the castle, and you have to be careful," he mimicked the message of President Soekarno. Not long after (about 30 minutes ago) Bogor Palace was occupied by troops of the Special Forces and the Strategic Reserve Command, First Lieutenant Sukardjo and his fellow guards stripped then captured and held in a military detention and discharged from military service. Some have doubted the testimony Soekardjo Wilardjito, even one of the perpetrators of history Supersemar, Gen. (Ret.) M. Jusuf, and Gen. (ret) M Panggabean denied the incident.

According to testimony A.M. Hanafi in his book "AM Hanafi Sues Suharto coup", a former Indonesian ambassador in Cuba unconstitutionally dismissed by Soeharto. He denied the testimony of Lieutenant Sukardjo Wilardjito saying that the presence of General M. Panggabean the Bogor Palace with three other generals (Amirmachmud, M. Jusuf and Basuki Rahmat) on March 11, 1966 morning who guns against President Sukarno. According to him, at that time, President Soekarno stay at Merdeka Palace, Jakarta, for the purposes of a cabinet meeting in the morning. Similarly, all the ministers or most of the ministers had to stay in the palace in order to avoid that the new coming the next day, the demonstrations that have been huddled in Jakarta. AM Hanafi Himself present at the hearing with the Deputy Prime Minister (Deputy Premier) Chaerul Saleh. According to the writings in his book, the three generals was that they are the ones who go to the Bogor Palace, to meet President Soekarno who went there first. And he thinks they departed from the previous palace, palace Amir Machmud free call to Commissioner Soemirat, personal bodyguard of President Soekarno in Bogor, asked for permission to come to Bogor. And all of that there are witnesses-witnesses. The three generals seem to have brought the text, which is called now Supersemar. That's where Bung Karno, but not a gun, because they come in fine. But outside the palace is surrounded demonstrations and tanks in the streets outside the palace. Given such circumstances, it seems Bung Karno signed the letter. So AM Hanafi stated, knowing him, because he did not attend but was in Bogor Presidential Palace together with other ministers. So yangdatang to Istana Bogor no General Panggabean. Mr Panggabean, who at that time served as Minister of Defense, was not present.

About typist Supersemar. Who actually typed letter, is still unclear. There are some people who claim to type the letter, among others, Lt. Col. (Ret.) Army Ebram Ali, at that time the Intelligence Assistant staff Cakrabirawa.

Testimony submitted to the foreign historian, Ben Anderson, by a soldier who had served in Bogor Palace. The Army argues that Supersemar typed on letterhead letter Army headquarters, not on presidential letterhead paper. This is according to Ben is the reason why Supersemar lost or deliberately omitted.
Various efforts have made the National Archives to get clarity on this letter. In fact, the National Archives have repeatedly asked the General (Ret.) M. Joseph, who was the last witness until his death 8 September 2004, to be willing to explain what really happened, but it always failed. It also had to ask for help Muladi the then State Secretary, Jusuf Kalla, and M. Saelan, even asked the House to summon M. Jusuf. Until now, the National Archives of effort never materialized. Another key witness, is former president Soeharto. But with the death of former President Soeharto on January 27, 2008, made history Supersemar more difficult to uncover.
With confusion Supersemar that, among historians and the laws of Indonesia said that the event Supersemar G-30-S/PKI and is one of the history of Indonesia that is still dark.

Super Semar Army Version
Super Semar Other Version

Sunday, March 3, 2013

Top 10 World War 2 Weapons.

Top 10 World War 2 Weapons.

The Second World War was the greatest, bloodiest conflict in human history. Millions were killed, empires rose and fell, and no corner of the planet was spared the destruction, fire, and death it left in its wake. Although it is often remembered as the first technological war, many of the battles of WWII were fought by nothing more advanced than men and their weapons. Weapons they carried, relied on, and cared for as they trudged across the burned out cities of Europe, the deserts of Africa, and the sweltering jungles of the South Pacific. Weapons that gave them a sliver of advantage over their enemies. Weapons that saved their lives and ended those of their enemies. Weapons that defined the iconography of a global struggle. These are the Top Ten infantry weapons of the Second World War.


10. The Karabiner 98K

The Second World War was the swansong for the bolt action rifle. They had dominated armed conflict since the end of the 19th century, and were still used by some armies after the war, but never again would a major nation’s army enter a battle armed with bolt action rifles as standard issue. Based on the military doctrine that armies primarily fought each other at long distances across open terrain, rifles like the Karabiner 98k were designed for a kind of war that was rapidly fading into history. Still, the Karabiner 98k was a stalwart of the German Army and remained in production right up until the German surrender in 1945. Of all the bolt action rifles that saw service during the war, the Karabiner 98k is considered to be the best. Even after the introduction of semi-automatic and automatic weapons, the Germans stuck with the karabiner 98k, partly because of tactical reasons (they based their squad tactics on light machine guns rather than riflemen) and partly because as German loses mounted, they couldn’t produce anything else. They did develop the world’s first true assault rifle at the end of the war, but it never saw widespread use. The Karabiner 98k remained the weapon that most German soldiers fought and died with.

9. The M1 Carbine

m1 carbine
As reliable and useful as the M1 Garand and The Thompson Submachine Gun were, they each had one serious drawback. They were extremely difficult for support soldiers to use. The Garand was long and difficult to access quickly if surprised. The Thompson was a little easier to get at, but it was still heavy for its compact size. For the ammunition bearers, mortar teams, artillery crews, and other frontline troops, neither were very effective in keeping them safe when they were directly attacked. In need of a weapon that was easily stowed and easily accessed for these soldiers, the U.S. Army settled on the M1 Carbine. It wasn’t the most powerful firearm in the war, but it was light, small, accurate, and, in the right hands, just as deadly as a more powerful weapon. U.S. Paratroopers also appreciated the M1 Carbine for its ease of use, and frequently jumped into combat armed with the folding stock version. The U.S. government ending up producing six million M1 Carbines in the war, more than any other U.S. firearm. Variations of the M1 are still manufactured and in use today by militaries and civilians.

8. The MP40

Although it was never issued in large numbers to infantrymen, The German MP40 has become a ubiquitous symbol of the German World War 2 solider and Nazis in general. It seems like every German in every war movie has one, but the MP40 was actually never standard issue for the common foot soldier. Usually used by paratroopers, squad leaders, and commandos, the MP40 saw service all over the war. It was especially useful in the Eastern Front against the Russians where the accuracy and power of long rifles was mostly wasted in the block by block street fighting. In fact, submachine guns like the MP40 were so effective that they made German planners rethink their reliance on bolt action or semi-automatic weapons, leading to the development of the first assault rifles. Still, the MP40 was one of the great submachine guns of the war, and became a symbol for the ruthless efficiency of the German soldier.

7. The Grenade

Not all the great weapons in WWII were rifles or pistols. Infantrymen also relied heavily on their grenades. Powerful, light, and the perfect size for throwing, grenades were an invaluable tool for assaulting positions. Just pull the pin, chuck it in, and suddenly storming a machinegun nest or bunker was a lot easier. From the iconic American “pineapple” grenade to the German stick grenade (nicknamed the “potato masher” due to its long handle), each nation relied on theses small, but deadly explosives to clear positions and generally scare the hell out the enemy. A rifle can do a lot of damage to human tissue, but the wounds caused by a fragmentation grenade are something else all together. Grenades were a very brutal weapon used in a very, very brutal conflict.

6. The Sten Gun

sten gun

After the disastrous defeat and withdrawal from Dunkirk in 1940, the British army was facing a severe shortage of military equipment. Forced to leave most of their equipment on the beaches as they fled, the British armed forces took the opportunity to upgrade their standard issue weapons. They tried to use Thompson Submachine guns, but demand in the U.S. limited the supply. The answer was to come up with a British submachine gun. That was the Sten gun. Several models saw action in the war, but they all shared a unique side mounted magazine and slim profile. It wasn’t a perfect weapon and could be temperamental, but at close range it was capable of incredible destruction. It was also very easy to assemble and disassemble, making it a perfect weapon for resistance forces and commandoes. Resistance fighters in Poland and across Occupied Europe relied on air-dropped Stens to hassle and disrupt the Germans far behind enemy lines. The Sten gun worked so well as an insurgency weapon that it remained in use by paramilitary and guerrilla forces as late as 1994.

5. The Luger PO8

Every Allied soldier was on the lookout for souvenirs during the war and none was more prized than the German sidearm Luger P08. It may seem a little strange to describe a lethal weapon as “beautiful,” but the Luger P08 was truly a work of art and remains among weapon collectors the most sought after World War 2 firearm. Sleekly designed, built to incredibly high standards, and extremely accurate for a pistol, the Luger P08 was the ultimate symbol of the Nazi’s image of themselves: powerful, precise, and absolutely deadly. Designed as an automatic sidearm replacement for the revolver, the Luger was highly prized for its unique design and long service life. Even though Germany was in the process of phasing the Luger P08 out before the war even started, it remains today the most collectable German weapon of the war. Many of the thousands that returned in G.I.’s loot bags are still in circulation today.

4. The KA-BAR Combat Knife

It’s an old military maxim that each army starts a war perfectly equipped for the last one they fought. For American soldiers, nowhere was this truer than in their service knives. The long trench knives they had, which were perfectly suited for the bloody trench battles of World War 1, weren’t going to cut it in the vastly different conditions of WWII. Enter the KA-BAR. Named after part of a barely literate trapper’s testimonial (it’s believed he was trying to write “kill a bear”), the KA-BAR quickly became much loved by every branch of the service that used it. Besides its combat uses, it was perfect for just about everything a soldier might need a knife for out in the bush. It could dig holes, open cans, and cut through brush. The KA-BAR was originally designed for hunters and outdoorsmen, and that’s basically what a soldier is. The Marines, who spent much of the war fighting the Japanese in jungles, especially loved it. The KA-BAR is still in use today by the Marines, Army, and Navy, and is arguably the single greatest combat knife ever invented.

3. The Thompson Submachine Gun

The Second World War was the first widespread conflict where the submachine came into its own as a combat weapon. There are several on this list, but none are more iconic than the Thompson submachine gun. After first achieving notoriety in the Irish Civil War and in the hands of Prohibition gangsters and law enforcement, the Thompson was adopted by the U.S. Army just before the start of the war. Despite its weight (at over 10 lbs it was heftier than most submachine guns), it was a very popular weapon for scouts, non-commissioned officers, commandoes, and paratroopers, who  all valued its stopping power and rate of fire. The weapon’s use was discontinued after the war, but Thompsons continued to pop up all over the world in the hands of armies and paramilitaries. It even saw action in the Bosnian War. For the soldiers who carried it in World War 2, it was an invaluable tool to keep them alive as they walked, ran, and fought their way across Europe and Asia.

2. The PPSh-41

Despite the vastness of their country, most of the engagements that the Russian forces were involved in in World War 2 were close quarters affairs. From the Winter War with Finland to the defence of Stalingrad, Soviet troops were much more likely to meet their enemies at closer ranges than those their Mosin-Nagent bolt action rifles were designed for. The Russians needed high rates of fire at short distances, not accuracy or power. Enter the PPSh-41. A wonder of mass production, the PPSh-41 was simple to manufacture (at the height of the war Russian factories were producing 3000 a day), and simple to use. It could be fitted with a drum magazine holding 71 rounds, and gave the Russians fire superiority at the close ranges they were fighting. The PPSh-41 was so effective that the Russian army outfitted entire regiments and divisions with it, something that had never been done before. But perhaps the best indication of the quality of the weapon was how valued it was among German troops. If your enemy can’t wait to get his hands on your weapons, you must be doing something right.

1. The M1 Garand

m1 garand
At the beginning of the war, nearly every infantryman in every major army was armed with a bolt action rifle. They were accurate and reliable, but they required that after every shot the soldier manually remove the spent shell casing and reload the weapon by manipulating a bolt. This was fine for sniping and other long distance engagements, but significantly limited each individual’s rate of fire. Wanting to increase their soldier’s ability to fire as many bullets at the enemy as possible, the U.S. Army brought into service one of the most famous rifles of all the time, the M1 Garand. Patton called it “the greatest battle implement ever devised,” and it often lived up to that high praise. It was easy to use and care for, quick to reload, and gave U.S. forces rate of fire superiority over every force they faced. The M1 became a stalwart of the U.S. military and was in active service until 1963. Even today, several forces around the world use it as a ceremonial weapon for drills and it is prized as a hunting weapon among civilians. But for the men who took on the Germans, Italians, and Japanese, it was often the difference between life and death.

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KA-BAR Full Size US Marine Corp Fighting Knife, Straight

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