Friday, September 28, 2012

Surabaya War 10 Oktober 1945

"There is no battle being waged by Republicans who can equal Surabaya battle, both in courage and perseverance" (David Welch in Birth of Indonesia, p. 67)
23 September 1945
Huijer captain of the Dutch Navy was the first vice-ally mark his feet in Surabaya to cond

uct a preliminary investigation and this indicates that the Netherlands who will spearhead the takeover of the Japanese Surabaya after 'errors' when British troops took over Semarang.
28 September 1945
Huijer Yaichiro visited the headquarters of Vice Admiral Shibata, supreme leader of Japanese troops in Surabaya, to bestow all powers including weapons under his command to Huijer. However, as attitudes Kaigun others (such as Admiral Maeda in Jakarta), Shibata very sympathetic to the struggle for Indonesian independence so he handed the weapon to the National Committee of Indonesia Surabaya (Surabaya-KNI) led by Sudirman and Doel Arnowo. KNI-Surabaya itself promised to hand them over to allies in time.


But KNI-Surabaya does not have the ability to manage the weapons former Japanese naval forces that they submit to the People's Security Agency (BKR), youth groups, police forces and even the militia / army are still not well organized.
October 1, 1945
A fight broke out between the youths of Indonesia and the Netherlands quickly turn into mass rallies throughout the city. They attacked airfields Morokrembangan and internment camp located in a residential area Darmo. Meanwhile, the headquarters of the Japanese army Kempetai and surrounded by a number of armed irregulars are, of bamboo spears to the submachine gun.
October 4, 1945
Surabaya has become an armed camp entirely in the hands of Indonesia. All the prison opened and the inhabitants of the inhabitants, whether they are arrested on suspicion of political or criminal has joined the huddled masses in the city. On that same day Shibata told officers that Huijer who is responsible for the security of the city.
October 8, 1945
Governor, TKR and police gradually lost power, which is then wholly dragged into 'anarchy'. Hostility towards Japan and the Netherlands are so deep among the youth, causing them to carry out the people's court, the blind is to execute the prisoners (Japan, in particular) with the executions by decapitation.The captain was a prisoner Huijer TKR for her safety.
October 12, 1945
Arrived a young man from Jakarta named Soetomo or later known as Bung Tomo, a journalist who worked in the office Domei news. He brought the idea of ​​setting up a radio transmitter, which later was named "Radio Rebellion" as a means of creating solidarity mass and increase youth fighting spirit.
October 13, 1945
Bung Tomo form the
Barisan Pemberontakan Republik Indonesia (BPRI), as an organization separate from the PRI led by Soemarsono. And radio broadcasts made by Bung Tomo is not only able to influence the students who are in the majority in East Java and Madura, but also the leaders of the "red" especially those in the PRI.
October 22, 1945
Nahdhatul Scholars from across Java and Madura hold rally in Surabaya where they demanded, "Appeal to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia is very soepaja determine which soeatoe clear that these attitudes and actions towards every work which endanger the religion and the country of Indonesia, especially against the Dutch and feet tangannja "(Reuters, October 25, 1945)
October 25, 1945
England landed at Tanjung Perak Surabaya, led by Brigadier General Mallaby who is also the Commander of the 49th Brigade with the primary task of evacuating Japanese troops and the internment. Brigade, numbering about six thousand troops to take with them the elite Gurkha.
Mallaby himself and his deputy, Colonel Pugh, first greeted by Mustopo, head-Surabaya TKR, and Atmadji, former activist Gerindo, representing the Navy TKR. After holding talks with Mustopo, Mallaby confirmed that allies would not be smuggled among them the Dutch and the NICA (Netherland Indies Civil Administrastion).
October 26, 1945
Without a comprehensive intelligence of data on the condition of Surabaya and its people are turbulent, Mallaby sent one platoon of troops led by Captain Shaw to save Captain Huijer. Society began to lose confidence in Surabaya Mallaby and his army.
 

Conditions worsened with flyers spread through the air all over town in Surabaya on the orders of Major General Hawthorn, allied commander in Jakarta. The leaflet contains the point that the Indonesia must submit all their weapons within 48 hours. Claims like these ended up canceling the agreement made by Mallaby and Moestopo.
October 27, 1945
Allies began to aggression. Basically, allied commanders still look down on the ability of Indonesia to maintain its independence. Moreover, they are so proud of his brigade with the 49th earned the nickname "The Fighting Cock" during the fight against the Japanese in the jungles of Burma.
October 28, 1945
Allied forces took over the airfield Morokrembangan and several important buildings such as railway bureau office, telegraph and telephon centers, hospitals Darmo other dna.
The great battle was inevitable between 6000 British forces to 120,000 soldiers and the youth of Indonesia. Due outnumbered, Mallaby Hawthorn assistance that Indonesia pause the battle. Hawthorn also asked Sukarno to persuade the commander-commander in Surabaya stop fighting.
Once Donnison wedged up in the book "The Fighting Cock" written "Narrowly escape destraction complete" alias almost entirely destroyed.
October 29, 1945
Sukarno, Hatta and Amir Sjarifoedddin come to Surabaya to stop fighting.
Then after coax the young soldiers and stop the fighting, three of them plus figures such Soedirman Surabaya, Soengkono, Soerjo and Bung Tomo talks with Mallaby and Hawthorn. The results of negotiations are the allies agreed to withdraw from the Tanjung Perak and Darmo, while Indonesia agreed to allow internment pass freely between the two sectors.
After negotiations, Sukarno, Hatta and Amir Sjarifoeddin back to Jakarta using aircraft and assume the violence was over.
October 30, 1945
While on patrol, the Buick was carrying Brigadier General Mallaby was intercepted by Indonesian militia group when going past the Red Bridge. Due to a misunderstanding, then there was a shooting that led to a car exploded British general hit. The car was charred.
Death of British general became the starting point for the events over the next terrible. Christinson Lieutenant General, Commander of Allied Forces in the Dutch East Indies (AFNEI) gave a stern warning against Indonesia. It then sends the entire 5th Infantry Division complete with tanks to Surabaya under the leadership of Major General Mansergh. Its strength totaling about 15,000 troops.
1 November 1945
The warship HMS Sussex appeared in Tanjung Perak port in Surabaya. Over the next week about 8000 internees successfully transferred to the warship.
9 November 1945
With all the internees (hostages) managed to take home, the British began to take action to revenge the death of Mallaby. As told Idrus,


“Sedjak beberapa hari sekoetoe mendaratkan serdadoe2 lebih banyak dan tank-tank raksasa. Tank-tank itu toeroen dari kapal seperti malaikal maut toeroen dari langit; diam2 dan dirahasiakan oleh orang jang menoeroenkannja” (Soerabaja, hal. 137)
Mansergh issued an ultimatum that all the weapons in Surabaya submitted before 06:00 hours the next day and that the Indonesian people are responsible for the death of Mallaby submitted. The ultimatum was transmitted through the air to the entire city.
Additionally Mansergh explicitly warned that all children and women should have left the city before 19:00 that night and give death penalty for anyone Indonesia who carry weapons after 0600 on 10 November 1945.
Hearing ultimatum calling Jakarta Surabaya leaders to obtain national-level decisions about what the answer should be given the ultimatum Mansergh. However, both Sukarno and Soebardjo (Foreign Minister) leaves it up to the people of Surabaya.
At 6 pm, the youth element of TKR and signed "Determination Soempah" the contents,
Bismillah Hirochmanirrachim
SOEMPAH KEBOELATAN TEKAD


Tetap Merdeka !
Kedaulatan Negara dan Bangsa Indonesia dilaporkan pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 akan kami pertahankan dengan soenggoeh-soenggoeh, penoeh tanggoeng djawab, ikhlas berkorban dengan tekad MERDEKA atau MATI !!!
Sekali Merdeka Tetap Merdaka!!
Soerabaja, 9 November 1945
Signed



(1) TKR City
(2) PRI
(3) BPRI
(4) TKR Sidoardjo
(5) BBI
(6) Sea TKR
(7) TKR Peladjar
(8) P.I.
(9) fuel (Barisan Brave Dead)
(10) TKR Modjokerto
(11) TKR Djombang
(12) etc.


And after a long discussion with all the elements in Surabaya at 23.00 night Soerjo governor announced his decision via radio that Surabaya will fight to the death.


10 November 1945
In 0600 Britain began its attack, while Bung Tomo calling all the people against the invaders that. Massive bombardment from air and sea to destroy most of Surabaya. Towards dusk, the British had invaded one third of the city.


Times newspaper in London reported that British forces consisted of 25 ponders, 37 howitser, HMS Sussex assisted 4 destroyer warships, 12 aircraft types Mosquito, 15,000 personnel from five divisions and 49 brigade personnel from 6000 The Fighting Cock.


David Welch describes the battle in his book, Birth of Indonesia (p. 66),


"In the center of the battle is more terrible, the roads are occupied one by one, from one door to another. The bodies of humans, horses, cats and dogs wallow in the gutters. Berpecahan glasses, household furniture, telephon wires hanging in the streets and the sounds of battle echoing amid the office buildings are empty.


Resistance Indonesia took place in two stages, the first self-immolation by fanatics, the people armed only with daggers attacked Sherman tanks, and then in a more organized and more effective, closely following manuals Japanese military '


The battle lasted for 3 weeks with malignant. In late November 1945 the whole city has fallen into the hands of an ally. Indonesian fighters are still alive following the thousands of refugees who fled Surabaya and then they make a new line of defense from Mojokerto in the west to the direction of Sidoarjo in East.


According to Ricklefs (2008) there are at least 6000 people in Indonesia who died. Although the republican party lost many soldiers and youth, but that is the sacrifice of their resistance has created a symbol of unity for the sake of the revolution and cried.