Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Short History of the G 30 S PKI

G 30 S PKI
September 30th Movement or often abbreviated as G 30 S PKI, G-30S/PKI, Gestapu (Thirty September Movement), Gestok (Movement One October) is an event that occurs just after the night of September 30 at the beginning of 1965 to October 1, 1965 in where six senior Indonesian military and several others were killed in an attempted coup attempt later blamed on the Indonesian Communist Party members.
Background
1. PKI strengthen the hands of the armed forces to lift the military generals to important positions.
In July 1959 the parliament was dissolved and Sukarno imposed constitution by decree by the instigation of the PKI. PKI strengthen the hands of the armed forces to lift the military generals to important positions. Sukarno his system of "guided democracy". CPI welcomes "Guided Democracy" warmly Sukarno and the assumption that he has a mandate for the conception of the alliance between the Nationalist and Communist Religion called NASAKOM.
2. Establishment of the fifth force
Sukarno regime to take steps against the workers by banning strikes in the industry. PKI leadership did not mind because industry is government-owned NASAKOM. Not long PKI clear about the preparations for the establishment of a military regime, stating the need for the establishment of "fifth force" in the armed forces, which consists of the armed workers and peasants. Instead of fighting for an independent mass mobilization to counter the growing military threat, the PKI leadership sought to restrict the movement of the mass of the deepening within the limits of the capitalist state. They, future military generals, trying to calm the PKI proposal will strengthen the state.
3. The issue of pain Bung Karno
From 1964 until just before the outbreak of G-30 has outstanding issues severe pain Bung Karno. This increases machination and issues of power struggle when Bung Karno died. But according to Subandrio, Aidit knew that Bung Karno only mild illness, so it is not an excuse to act the PKI.
4. Issues and problems for the results
No course of Agrarian Law and the Law for the results in various areas
5. Commotion between PKI and Islam
PKI in some places even kyais threatened that they would be slaughtered after 30 September 1965 (it is proved that all elements of PKI knowing the September 30th coup plot).
6. Factors Malaysia
Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation is one cause of the proximity of President Sukarno and the PKI, explaining the motivation of soldiers who joined the movement G30S/Gestok (Movement One October), and eventually led to the kidnapping of high-ranking Communist Party of the Army.
7. Economic Factors
8. This economic factor is one reason people's anger over the murder of six generals, which resulted in a backlash against the PKI and the massacre of the people who accused members of the PKI in Central Java, East Java, Bali and other places.
Event
1. General Board Issues
At a crucial moment in September 1965 about the emerging issues General Council that reveal the presence of some Army officials are not satisfied with and intend to overthrow Sukarno. Responding to this issue, Soekarno touted Cakrabirawa ordered troops to arrest and bring them to trial by Sukarno. However, the unexpected, the arrest operation generals such, there are some elements of action and emotion inedible killing Lt. Gen. Ahmad Yani, Panjaitan, and Harjono. GBU
2. Gilchrist Document Contents
Gilchrist documents taken from the name of the British ambassador to Indonesia Andrew Gilchrist circulating almost coincided with the General Council of the issue. This document, which by some is called fraud by Czech intelligence under the supervision of Russian KGB General Agayant, mentions the existence of "local army friends we" that suggests that Army officers had been purchased by the West [4]. Embassy of the United States is also accused of giving the list of names of PKI members to the army for the "actionable".
3. Suharto Engagement Issues
However, to date there is no evidence of involvement / active role in kidnapping the Soeharto. The only evidence that could be elaborated is meeting Suharto, who was serving as Kostrad (at that time title Commander of the Army Strategic Reserve forces are not in charge, as opposed to now) with KolonelAbdul Latif at Army Hospital.
Victim
§ Lt. Gen. Ahmad Yani (Minister / Commander of the Army / Chief of Staff Operations Command Top)
§ Maj. Gen. Suprapto Raden (II Deputy Minister / Commander of the Army Administration)
§ Maj. Gen. Mas Tirtodarmo Haryono (III Deputy Minister / Commander of the Army field of Planning and Development)
§ Maj. Gen. Siswondo Parman (Assistant Minister / Commander of the Army Intelligence)
§ Brigadier General Donald Isaac Panjaitan (IV Assistant Minister / Commander of the Army logistics field)
§ Sutoyo Siswomiharjo Brigadier General (Inspector of Justice / Judge Advocate General of the Army)
§ Bripka Karel Satsuit Tubun (Guard official residence of the Deputy Prime Minister II dr.J. Leimena)
§ Colonel Katamso Darmokusumo (072/Pamungkas Military Commander, Yogyakarta)
§ Sugiyono Mangunwiyoto Lt. Col. (Chief of Staff Korem 072/Pamungkas, Yogyakarta)
Gen. Abdul Harris Nasution, who became the main target, survived the assassination attempt. Instead, his daughter Ade Irma Suryani Nasution and his aide, First Lieutenant Andrew CZIPierre Tendean killed in the assassination attempt. The victims were then thrown into a location in Pondok Gede, Jakarta is known as Crocodile Hole. Their bodies were found on October 3.
Crocodile Hole
Lieutenant Colonel Fortunately, commander Cakrabirawa, presidential guard, ordered Lieutenant Dul Arief to pick up and bring the generals have already been recorded. Pasopati forces led immediately moves from Crocodile Hole around 03.00 pm. They spread to each target simultaneously.
Brigadier General Soetodjo Siswomihardjo, Brigadier General Donald Izaac Pandjaitan, Major General S. Parman, MT Hardjono Major General, Lieutenant General Ahmad Yani, Maj. Gen. R. Soeprapto and Lieutenant Andries Piere Tendean, they bring to the Crocodile Hole for interrogation. Massa was crazy persecute them to death. The bodies of the victims and then buried in the well.
Scary stories were soon flowing. Suharto, one of the generals who survived, campaigning for the CPI mass atrocities in two newspapers of the military: Army News Yudha. Mentioned, before being killed, the officers were tortured and made part Gerwani nasty party. Some officers mutilated his genitals and his eyes gouged out.
Post-incident
On October 1, 1965 general secretary Sukarno and the PKI Aidit Revolutionary Council responded by forming the "rebels" by moving to Halim Air Force Base in Jakarta to seek refuge.
On October 6, Sukarno appealed to the people to create a "national unity", the unity between the army and the victims, and the cessation of violence.
On October 12, 1965, the leaders of the Soviet Brezhnev, Mikoyan and Kosygin sent a special message to Sukarno: "We and our colleagues were delighted to hear that your health has improved ... We listened with interest about your speech radio to all the people of Indonesia to remain calm and avoid the chaos ... This call will be understood in depth. "
On October 16, 1965, Major General Suharto, Sukarno inaugurated as Minister / Commander of the Army at the State Palace. Here's an excerpt mandate of President Sukarno to Suharto at Suharto was sworn
Catching and killing
At the end of 1965, between 500,000 and one million members and supporters of the PKI had been slaughtered, and hundreds of thousands were imprisoned in concentration camps, without any opposition at all. At least 250,000 workers and peasants were imprisoned in concentration camps. Estimated that about 110 000 people remain imprisoned as political prisoners by the end of 1969. Executions continue to this day, including dozens of people since the 1980's. Four prisoners, Johannes Surono Hadiwiyono, Safar Suryanto, Simon Peter Sulaeman and Norbertus Rohayan, was sentenced to death nearly 25 years since the coup.
Supersemar
Five months after that, on March 11, 1966, Suharto Sukarno gave unlimited power through an Order of March. He ruled Suharto to "take appropriate measures" to restore order and to protect the personal safety and authority. Unlimited power was first used by Suharto to ban the Communist Party. As a reward for his services, was retained as titular president Sukarno military dictatorship until March 1967.
PKI leadership kept the masses to the authority of Sukarno and Suharto regime. Aidit, who had fled, was captured and killed by the military on the 24th of November, but work continued by the Second Secretary of the Communist Party Nyoto.
Warning
After the incident, 30 September is celebrated as Remembrance Day September 30th Movement. The next day, October 1, set as the Pancasila Miracle Day. In the Soeharto era, usually a film about the event was also broadcast across television stations in Indonesia each year on September 30. Additionally during the Soeharto usually done in the flag ceremony at the monument of Pancasila Sakti Crocodile Hole, followed by sowing flowers on the graves of the heroes of the revolution in TMP Kalibata. But since the Reformation era rolled on, the film is no longer running and is only continuing the tradition of sowing flowers.